Washington University researchers are working to develop artificial intelligence (AI) systems for health care, which have the potential to transform the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, helping to ensure that patients get the right treatment at the right time.
In a new Viewpoint article published Dec. 10 in the Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA), two AI experts at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis — Philip Payne, PhD, the Robert J. Terry Professor and director of the Institute for Informatics; and Thomas M. Maddox, MD, a professor of medicine and director of the Health Systems Innovation Lab — discuss the best uses for AI in health care and outline some of the challenges for implementing the technology in hospitals and clinics.
In health care, artificial intelligence relies on the power of computers to sift through and make sense of reams of electronic data about patients — such as their ages, medical histories, health status, test results, medical images, DNA sequences, and many other sources of health information. AI excels at the complex identification of patterns in these reams of data, and it can do this at a scale and speed beyond human capacity. The hope is that this technology can be harnessed to help doctors and patients make better health-care decisions.
One of the first applications of AI in patient care that we currently see is in imaging, to help improve the diagnosis of cancer or heart problems, for example. There are many types of imaging tests — X-rays, CT scans, MRIs and echocardiograms. But the underlying commonality in all those imaging methods is huge amounts of high-quality data. For AI to work well, it’s best to have very complete data sets — no missing numbers, so to speak — and digital images provide that. Plus, the human eye is often blind to some of the patterns that could be present in these images — subtle changes in breast tissue over several years of mammograms, for example. There has been some interesting work done in recognizing early patterns of cancer or early patterns of heart failure that even a highly trained physician would not see.
In many ways, we already have very simple forms of AI in the clinic now. We’ve had tools for a long time that identify abnormal rhythms in an EKG, for example. An abnormal heartbeat pattern triggers an alert to draw a clinician’s attention. This is a computer trying to replicate a human being understanding that data and saying, “This doesn’t look normal, you may need to address this problem.” Now, we have the capacity to analyze much larger and more complex sources of data, such as the entire electronic health record and perhaps even data pulled from daily life, as more people track their sleep patterns or pulse rates with wearable devices
The rational thinking of physician involves a lot of subjective decision making and its complexity makes traditional quantitative approaches of analysis inappropriate. The computer based tools and knowledge base, helps for early diagnosis of diseases. The intelligent decision making systems can appropriately handle both, uncertainty and imprecision. In current paper authors made an attempt to keep students, researchers, medical professional and community to update, aware about role of artificial intelligence in the field of medicine to improve healthcare system. Webicina is a service, overhauled to give free, moment access to dependable online data for patients and doctors. Healthline, WebMD are few more resources which provides adequate information about health. Doctors and patients both can progressively blog and oversee other online networking systems. In future, the innovation will get altered treatment quickly to our sub-atomic cosmetics and hereditary foundation. This pattern has as of now began affecting medications in oncology. Oncompass and Foundation Medicine give customized treatment recommendations to patients in view of hereditary information. Another apparatus is smart watch and will turn into the following achievement after wearable trackers. Their significance in social insurance is still uncertain, but rather the Apple watch and the Pebble sold a large number of units, while Google is building up a wellbeing following wristband customized for the necessities of clinical trials. IBM Watson has been utilized at oncology focuses in the USA. So Artificial Intelligence is at a budding stage in India and there are ample opportunities to explore this filed for the benefit of the mankind.
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